We design and manufacture a complete selection of constant force springs that can be used for various applications, across virtually every industry, from healthcare to aerospace and within general household items.

This blog will look at what a constant force spring is, common applications and how we design these widely used mechanisms.

What is a Constant Force Spring? 

Constant force springs (or constant torque springs) get their name because their force of motion is at constant exertion. The load is determined by the width and thickness of the material and the diameter of the coil.

The tightly wound roll works in a linear movement and does not obey Hooke’s law (F=kX) but constantly produces force throughout its deflection.

These springs provide a smooth range of motion and a constant load in extending or retracting. The full load of the spring is reached after being deflected to a length equal to 1.25 times its diameter and it can sustain a constant force regardless of the extension length.

Constant force springs can be fitted in a variety of ways and extended either partly or completely, which allows them to be used for a range of applications because of the lack of limitations on extension speed and acceleration.

Fitting a Constant Force Spring 

The fitting can be completed in a number of ways. For long extensions, the spring must be laterally guided to prevent movement in a sideways direction — suitable play on each side is 0.5 – 1.5 mm. 

When fitting on a bearing or conduit, the spring can be located using its own force providing that sufficient strip length remains on the bearing. If there is no operating extension limit in the application, we recommend that a screw or rivet is used to secure the inner end of the spring.

Our standard springs and slide bearings are normally supplied separately. Fitting is done by loosening the outer end of the spring and winding it onto the bearing (securing it if necessary), after which the complete spring is wound onto the bearing.

Constant Force Spring Applications  

A constant force spring is an excellent device for applications where a constant load is required. The many benefits of these springs make them suitable for a number of applications. 

The spring itself has a small space requirement which allows it to provide a smooth range of motion. With no inertia to overcome, constant force springs are very versatile and can mount to existing hardware, as well as create a counterbalancing effect. 

Constant force springs are widely used across the medical and healthcare industries to improve surgical devices. They are also used regularly in aviation to deploy and retract aircraft doors and efficiently counterbalance aeroplane windows.

You will also find constant force springs in many day-to-day applications, such as door closers, hairdryers, gym equipment, electric motors, cabinet furniture components and much more.

Innovative Design and Technology 

We’ve been designing springs for over 70 years, and so our range is exceptionally varied and technologically advanced. Besides our standard range, we can provide customised solutions using design capabilities that feature our advanced, proprietary spring design software.

Our software package has been developed in-house and we can simulate any type of application, which enables us to calculate the force required for your particular design. 

Our regular constant force springs are wrapped on a drum with the free end attached to the loading force. However, your preferred mounting method will impact the way we design your spring.

Our skilled design team can help by determining a suitable method to rule out any problems, even if you haven’t decided upon the exact specifications.


As an experienced spring manufacturer, we have the expertise to create a whole host of springs perfect for any application within any industry.

Take a look at our stock catalogue for more information on our range of springs and forms. Alternatively, get in touch with us directly at info.bec@oldeuropeansprings.sqsite.co.uk, we’d love to hear from you.

We’re delighted to announce that four budding engineers have firmly developed their careers by achieving industry-recognised qualifications at European Springs & Pressings.

As industry-leading spring manufacturers, investing in the future of manufacturing is important to us. Our next generation of engineers has successfully achieved either CITY & GUILDS or BTEC qualifications following a nationally recognised manufacturing apprenticeship framework.

Stuart McSheehy, Managing Director of European Springs & Pressings, says, “The value of apprenticeships can never be underestimated. Training the next generation of our people is crucial to ensure the business has the skills in its people for the future”. 

Stuart McSheehy, Managing Director of European Springs & Pressings, presenting our apprentices with their certificates.

Celebrating our Apprentices

Tyler Stevens

Tyler joined us in 2013 as a Production Operator at the age of 17. Having worked for two years in this role, Tyler enjoyed the challenges he faced at European Springs but wanted to develop and improve his skills. He decided to take a pay cut and became an apprentice at the age of 19. 

The apprenticeship has helped boost his self-confidence and has developed his skills significantly. Tyler did admit that he found the studying difficult, but his motivation to succeed saw him achieve his goal in April 2021.

Tyler is a significant member of our Small Order Springmaker team, working on complex projects, often with the Technical Director.

Well done to Tyler on your ADVANCED LEVEL APPRENTICESHIP IN ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE WITH CITY & GUILDS LEVEL 3 AND NVQ LEVEL 3.

Alan Lowing

Alan started in 2015, at the age of 18, having already been through sixth form at school. He spent time working in each department during his initial training but developed a specific interest in wire forming. 

While completing his studies in performing engineering operations, he became heavily involved in the productionisation of a new FMU4. Although Alan’s apprenticeship journey has been longer due to his initial studies, he managed to complete his apprenticeship in 2020 whilst working full time. Alan is currently an essential member of the wireforming team and principal setter for the FMU4.

A huge congratulations to Alan on being awarded an ADVANCED LEVEL APPRENTICESHIP IN ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE WITH BTEC LEVEL 3 AND NVQ LEVEL 3. 

Rob Jenkins

Rob started in 2016 at the age of 19 and spent time working in each department. He developed a real passion for the Press Shop — probably because it had a good rhythm and was loud, like the music his band makes!

Having developed significant skills in this area, Rob has become heavily involved in Bruderer presses and stamping technologies. He is an instrumental part of the Press Shop team in the layout and commissioning of the new press shop extension. 

Rob managed his studies whilst building a life with his partner and recently achieved his goal of being awarded an ADVANCED LEVEL APPRENTICESHIP IN ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE WITH BTEC LEVEL 3 AND NVQ LEVEL 3. Congratulations Rob!

Tom Hever

Tom joined us in 2016, straight from school at the age of 16. Initially, he spent time working in each department during his training but developed an interest in toolmaking, where he liked the order and accuracy of the work.

Having developed a wide range of skills in this area, Tom spent time working on tool repair and assembly. Sticking to his studies, at the end of 2020, Tom achieved his goal of being awarded an ADVANCED LEVEL APPRENTICESHIP IN ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE WITH BTEC LEVEL 3 AND NVQ LEVEL 3. Well done, Tom! 

Tom is currently honing his skills and experience on the EDM machines as a trusted member of the toolmaking team.

Our Managing Director Stuart McSheehy speaks about the importance of our apprenticeships, saying that “not only is this a fantastic achievement for personal development it also inspires the next generation of engineers and spring makers. With the challenges of 2020 behind us we are all very proud to present our latest apprentices with their qualifications.”


By welcoming apprentices every year, we see the benefits of having a development plan in place, and many of our qualified apprentices continue to develop their skills as spring technicians. 

It’s essential to strengthen our knowledge and introduce more diverse skillsets into our workplace, including preparing for future growth within manufacturing.

If you’d like to discuss the potential of joining our team or then please get in touch with our friendly team.

At European Springs & Pressings, we have found that the automotive industry is one of the sectors where our products have the widest application. Custom springs are used frequently for building new cars, in everything from disk brakes to suspension and even in your steering wheel.

Continuing our ‘springs in industry’ series, we’d like to look at how springs and pressings are used in the automotive sector, particularly in Formula 1 cars.

Racing Cars 

Springs and pressings are one of the most important components in racing cars. Each Formula 1 car is carefully crafted to give each vehicle optimal performance. In fact, it is estimated that an F1 car consists of 16,000 parts, of which only 10 percent are carried over year on year (Formula1.com).

The build of the racecar takes into account the speed, cornering ability, grip and downforce. All of these elements are aided and improved by experienced engineering, incredible technology and high-quality components.

Engineer check and control welding robotics automatic arms machine in intelligent factory automotive industrial with monitoring system software. Digital manufacturing operation. Industry 4.0

Disk Brakes 

You wouldn’t necessarily associate F1 driving with braking, but disk brakes are implemented to stop the cars safely when travelling at high speeds. 

Almost every car currently in production, including commercial vehicles, uses disc brakes, and they have proven to be more effective than traditional ‘drum’ style brakes. 

In F1 cars, disc brakes are fitted with rotating discs that are attached to the wheels and then squeezed between the brake pads — this creates a force that helps to slow the car down or bring it to a complete stop.

Pull-rod and Push-rod Front Suspension

Pull-rods were first brought into F1 in the 70s running from the outer end of the upper wishbones diagonally to the lower edge of the chassis. They pull on a rocker that operates the damper spring, alleviating any harsh impacts or uneven surfaces the course may entail.

This suspension system ensures a strong mechanical grip as the pull-rods make the car’s nose lower, thus lowering the height of the centre of gravity and improving handling.

Race car racing on a track with motion blur. 3d model scene.

Most F1 cars now use push-rods as they are easier to install and fit nicely under the vehicle’s low nose. The push-rods flex with the wheels as they encounter any bumps, providing better aerodynamics for a more streamlined race.

The latter is more widely used by teams competing in Formula 1 today due to the vast difference in fitting; push-rods are a lot easier to install.

For both suspension methods, the spring is essential due to the absorption of shock. Energy is transferred with the help of a sound suspension system and can significantly impact the team, regardless of driver skill.

Springs in Suspension 

Torsion bars, leaf, coil and air springs are among the different types of springs used in cars.

Most modern vehicles are fitted with standard coil springs made of steel. High-quality suspension systems are created by a strong spring absorbing the shock forces while driving on uneven roads. 

To see our full range of springs used in various industries, please check out our brochure now.


With over 70 years of experience as a spring manufacturer, we have the expertise and machinery to create a whole host of springs perfect for any application within any industry. 

If you would like any more information about any of our products or services, please contact our friendly team here at European Springs.

The first steps to ease lockdown restrictions have begun in England, with all restrictions forecast for removal by 21st June 2021.

The UK Government’s four stage roadmap to re-open the economy relies on a series of ‘tests’ for easing restrictions, such as the vaccine rollout and lower infection rates. You can view the full COVID-19 recovery strategy here. 

At European Springs & Pressings, we’ve continued to work at close to full capacity despite the challenges presented by Covid-19. We’ve worked hard to invest in the right areas of our business and now that we can see the light at the end of the tunnel, we want to discuss the impact of the pandemic on the manufacturing industry as a whole.

Two Heavy Industry Engineers Stand in Pipe Manufacturing Factory, Use Digital Tablet Computer, Have Discussion. Construction of Oil, Gas and Fuels Transport Pipeline. Back View Sparks Flying

What Does the Roadmap Mean for Manufacturing? 

As a result of the pandemic, many factories worked reduced hours or were forced to close, which has caused unprecedented disruption to supply chains all over the world.

The Office for Budget Responsibility predicted that manufacturing, construction, retail, travel, food industries and education would experience the biggest losses. Though we now know that both sanitary and social distancing restrictions have also disrupted the services sector, which is likely to have a lasting effect. This means that the UK has become more reliant on manufacturers to lead the recovery.

We believe the main steps for recovery and moving forward are:

  • A safe return to work for all employees
  • Establishing future-facing practices and policies 
  • Realising opportunities, such as new technologies and equipment

The Importance of Returning to Work Safely

Safety within manufacturing is a concern for all employees on their return to work and for reopening production. To return to work safely, it’s important to consider guidance, firstly from the Health and Safety Executive on operating safely, as well as providing the correct PPE and implementing practical solutions to transportation, childcare and flexible working for employees.

We must support and strengthen our manufacturing base with the intention of helping employment, whilst also ensuring that the UK can start to level up. In turn, this will warrant higher levels of reissuance and domestic capability.

Building Resilience in Post-Covid19 Manufacturing 

The vulnerability of supply chains has been highlighted as a result of the on-going pandemic. We’ve seen the consequences of an underinvested manufacturing base with limited domestic capacity to produce critical products.

To move forward, it’s important to build for the future. Companies can respond to the crisis by creating mapping projects to better understand our supply chain vulnerabilities. These can include logistics and transportation, allowing your company to build resilience.

How to Improve on Economic Confidence

The effects of the pandemic have changed the manufacturing industry, including how we work and the machinery we’re working with. Adopting new technologies to counter the Covid-19 crisis should coincide with the upskilling for existing employees to use new technologies.

In our January blog, we looked at ‘The Key To Combating Pandemic Effects On Manufacturing’ and two months on, we’re still optimistic about a boom in manufacturing thanks to continued investment in the right technologies.

Make UK, The Manufacturers’ Organisation produced a report in May 2020 outlining the importance of investment in technologies. If you want to find out more then take a look at their report, Manufacturing our road to recovery – the 3 point plan.

In this report, Make UK proposes that the manufacturing industry should introduce an enhanced tax incentive to encourage automation, digitisation and export growth. This incentive could help UK firms to grow their exports once the global economy returns to a ‘new normal’.

It’s never too late to invest in automation technology. By implementing a more robust and automated element to your business, you can reduce the time spent on tasks, save money, and improve your overall safeguarding strategy.

If you’d like to find out more about the ongoing digital transformation in manufacturing then check out our blog on what the future of manufacturing looks like

A portrait of a mature industrial man and woman engineer with laptop in a factory, working.
A portrait of a mature industrial man and woman engineer with laptop in a factory, working.

What’s Coming up in 2021 for European Springs?

Here at European Springs & Pressings, we’re continuing our focus on stability, recovery and growth. We have invested heavily over the past two years in machinery, upskilling our employees and technology which means we are positive about bouncing back from the effects of Coronavirus.

Our team looks forward to welcoming leaders from around the globe at this year’s G7 summit, which will be held in Cornwall in June 2021.

Keep up to date with our blog page and be the first to see the latest information on the manufacturing industry, as well as expert sector insights.

For over 70 years, European Springs and Pressings have achieved and maintained the highest levels of technical expertise and innovative solutions in bespoke pressings.

Due to our expertise and experience in the spring manufacturing industry, we are an established member of The Institute of Spring Technology and the Institute of Sheet Metal Engineering, supporting our registration with BSI to ISO9001 and to ISO14001 and our commitment to sustainability.

We operate from three locations across England, with manufacturing facilities in London and Cornwall and a stocking facility in Northampton, which supplies our standard stock and gas springs.

We’re passionate about designing, developing and manufacturing quality products, which is why we’ve continued to create new solutions to meet our customers’ specific custom requirements. Our team of experts are on-hand with 24-hour support to ensure the highest levels of satisfaction for all of our clients.

Happy manual workers talking while working together at steel factory.

What Makes Us Stand Out?

We believe our versatility across a number of industries sets us apart from other spring manufacturers. We’re proud to create bespoke pressings across many sectors, including electrical, automotive, agricultural, defence, medical and telecom industries.

We’re involved from the initial drawing board stage, which makes it easier for us to guide our customers towards choices of quality materials to optimise functionality of the production process and deliver cost-efficient and high-quality results.

Our drive to consistently develop our products and services based on our customers’ needs means that we can improve and expand on our range of springs, pressings and other wire forms. We take the time to listen and work with our customers to develop new products and best advise on how to meet their requirements.

As a part of the Lesjöfors Group, we have the ability to manufacture and distribute all forms of springs, pressings, stampings and wire forms across the world. Lesjöfors have manufacturing and sales offices across Europe, Korea, China, Thailand, Singapore, Mexico and the US. Thanks to our parent company’s international connections and our production of more than 3,000,000 components per hour, we can comfortably meet large and small orders.

Portrait of factory worker. Young handsome factory worker.

Technology, Machinery and Innovative Solutions

We provide excellent solutions for pressings, wire forms and stampings. Our capability to manufacture a whole host of products, both for single and bulk orders, means we can offer the perfect solution no matter how big or small your project is.

European Springs have the capacity to make wire forms of the highest quality by using the latest CNC automated spring coilers and wire forming equipment in the industry. We cater for generic wire forms orders as well as bespoke pieces. When fulfilling smaller orders, we often manually produce our wire forms, but for larger orders, our highly-advanced machinery makes them automatically.

For large orders of pressings and stampings, we utilise the Bruderer, Mabu Zani and SMV which are among some of the most advanced pieces of equipment in the industry. We have the capacity to deal with orders of tens of millions of components thanks to the high-speed equipment we use. For smaller production runs we use Baltec and Hare Single Stroke presses, which gives us versatility in production, making us the first and only stop for our customers.

We plan on continuing to invest in upskilling our experienced engineers, while also focusing on installing the very best and latest technology — allocating 10% of turnover to investment in a new plant.

Industrial technology concept. Communication network. INDUSTRY 4.0. Factory automation.

One of the UK’s Most Experienced Supplier of Springs

Using automated machinery at our manufacturing plants, coupled with the hard work of our experienced design team means that we can offer a whole range of custom products and services, including bespoke pressings and bespoke stampings.

The majority of our bespoke pressings and stampings are produced from metal strip, carbon and stainless steels; copper, brass, phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, aluminium and super alloy.

Our high-speed presses of up to 130 Tones support volume component production, making us one of the leading UK manufacturers of bespoke spring pressings. We also have a dozen state of the art Wafios wire-forming machines which support our wire form production. This level of productivity allows us to host over 12,000 items in our stock catalogue at extremely competitive prices.

So, whether you’re looking for one-off prototyping and design support or need to stamp high volume parts, we can offer a full service including tool making, finishing, assembly and testing.

Our range of springs and services include compression springs, gas springs, torsion springs and tension springs, as well as on-site powder coating, shot peening, barrel rumbling and polishing.


We’re dedicated to offering the highest level of service for unbeatable prices and with a planned expansion on our current operations, the future for European Springs and Pressings looks bright.

Take a look at our stock catalogue for more information on our range of springs and forms. Alternatively, get in touch with us directly at info.bec@oldeuropeansprings.sqsite.co.uk, we’d love to hear from you.

As experienced spring manufacturers and suppliers, it’s important for us to keep a close eye on how the engineering industry is evolving. 

Over the last ten years, there have been many changes in the engineering sector, including the introduction of new technologies. This transformation has led to young people being concerned about a career within engineering, unaware of what skills, experience, or knowledge they need on new processes and equipment in the industry.

In this blog, we’ll take a look into the skills gap that young people may face in 2021, as well as what the future of this ever-evolving sector might look like.

Studies Into Engineering Jobs of The Future

The World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Future of Jobs Report 2020 suggests that jobs associated with engineering, cloud computing, data and AI will be the most in-demand jobs of the future. The report also highlights the opportunity for development in current roles, meaning that the industry should focus on the demand for these ‘future’ skills and expertise.

Man is programming robotic arm with control panel which is integrated on smart factory production line. industry 4.0 automation line which is equipped with sensors and robotic arm

A look at some key stats from the report: 

  • 43% of businesses surveyed indicate that they are set to reduce their workforce due to technology integration
  • 41% plan to expand their use of contractors for task-specialized work
  • 34% plan to expand their workforce due to technology integration

The WEF report’s key findings highlighted that automation, in tandem with the COVID-19 recession, creates a ‘double-disruption’ scenario for workers. In addition to the current disruption from national lockdowns and economic contraction, companies’ technological adoption is forecast to transform tasks, jobs and skills by 2025. 

In the last five years especially, the recurring question, “will a robot take my job?” is starting to become a reality in some cases. However, it’s important to consider upskilling employees to work with these new technologies. By doing this sooner rather than later, you can start to strengthen and multi-skill your workforce for the future. 

In 2019, we wrote a blog on Engineering Jobs of the Future focusing on the 2019 study conducted by BAE Systems. The study drew attention to some of the issues young people face regarding future-proofing their careers, with just 18% of respondents feeling they have the skills required to ensure longevity within their job.

BAE Systems also found in 2019 that 47% of young people aged between 16-24 believe that they will one day work in a role that doesn’t yet exist. Two years since the study took place, we can already see the impact of emerging technologies like AI, robotics and VR on jobs within engineering and further afield.

The Future of Jobs and Reducing the Skills Gap 

Engineering jobs will inevitably start to demand more knowledge and experience of VR, AI and robotics, and because of this, skills gaps will always be present.

Industrial technology concept. Factory automation. Smart factory. INDUSTRY 4.0

The Future of Jobs report (2020) noted that employers see skill groups as rising in prominence in the lead up to 2025, including critical thinking, analysis, problem-solving, and skills in self-management — such as active learning and resilience, stress tolerance and flexibility. 

The report suggests that, on average, companies estimate that around 40% of workers will require reskilling of six months or less, and 94% of business leaders report that they expect employees to pick up new skills on the job, a sharp uptake from 65% in 2018.

Online learning and courses are a great way to engage young people, and apprenticeships also offer invaluable experience by introducing training, new skills and technical knowledge to your company.

Investing in Skilled People and New Technologies

Here at European Springs, we’ve already implemented automation into our process in a considerable way. By using the latest CNC automated spring coilers and wire forming equipment in the industry, we can create bespoke solutions for pressings, wire forms and stampings.

We take great pride in ensuring that we keep on top of the very latest technological advancements in the engineering sector, and so we continue our investment both in upskilling our dedicated engineers and installing the best equipment.


With over 70 years of experience as one of the leading spring manufacturers in the UK, European Springs understand just how important it is to future proof our business. 

If you’d like to learn more about our investment in technology or even discuss the possibility of seeking our services, then please get in touch with our friendly team. We’d love to hear about your next project!

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